Scientific reasons why do NOT eat meat

Is meat healthy? The question is: what does science say? Science – so don’t advertise and fake advertisements. For example, if you believe that pomegranate has more and / or better antioxidants than e.g. apple, then you are a victim of false advertising. And this false advertisement is the result of a distortion of the truth of a scientific study…

Don’t believe the fake commercials. Unfortunately, many magazines and websites exaggerate in the headlines and people believe it (and spread ‘knowledge’ further) even though they haven’t even read the article. If you want to know the science behind something, then you need to read studies, it’s that easy. Not commercials.

In the article, the word ‘meat’ refers to all foods of animal origin: meat (meat of cows, chickens, fish, etc.), milk and dairy products, eggs and cheese. The use of the term ‘meat’ varies in these studies.

Scientific reasons why you should NOT eat meat *

  1. Neu5Gc is found only in animal meat. Neu5Gc is strongly associated with cancer and heart disease.
    Notes: Neu5Gc does not produce either a human body or a human-like monkey. However, Neu5Gc is found in almost all human tumors. Inflammation caused by this molecule feeds tumors and hardens arteries.
    Source: Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct; 18 (10): 818-30.
  2. The various types of meat occupy 15 leading positions on the scale of foods producing advanced glycation end products (AGE), with grilled chicken skin and fried bacon at the top of the scale.
    Notes: AGEs are gerontotoxins (aging toxins). AGEs cause protein binding, leading to stiffness, oxidative stress, and inflammation in muscles, brain tissue, eyes, heart, bones, red blood cells, and kidneys. These processes are also thought to contribute to the loss of muscle mass with aging.
    Source: Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun; 110 (6): 911-16.e12.
    Source: Does the accumulation of advanced glycation end products contribute to the aging phenotype? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Sep; 65 (9): 963-75. Epub 2010 May 17.
  3. Arachidonic acid (naturally present in foods of animal origin) has been linked to inflammation, depression, anxiety and stress.
    Notes: Arachidonic acid creates inflammation in our body. Our body produces all the arachidonic acid it needs, unlike animals (such as cats), which produce little or no arachidonic acid because their bodies expect to receive it through diet (meat). Excess arachidonic acid causes excessive inflammation.
    Source: Preliminary evidence that vegetarian diet improves mood. American Public Health Association annual conference, November 7-11, 2009. Philadelphia, PA.
  4. Chicken and eggs are the biggest sources of arachidonic acid.
    Notes: Humans naturally produce enough arachidonic acid for bodily functions.
    Source: National Cancer Institute. 2010. Sources of Selected Fatty Acids among the US Population, 2005–06.
  5. Just one meal high in animal fat in just a few hours increases inflammation in the body to the point that human arteries can harden.
    Notes: Possible explanations are saturated fats or endotoxemia (see sections 7, 8 and 9). Inflammation is also caused by the meat of wild animals (see section 10).
    Source: Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Feb 1; 79 (3): 350-4.
  6. Significant amounts of bacterial toxins are present in food of animal origin, causing endotoxemia (presence of bacterial toxins in the bloodstream) within just a few hours after ingestion.
    Notes: 40 different types of the most common foods were tested.
    Source: The capacity of foodstuffs to induce innate immune activation of human monocytes in vitro is dependent on food content of stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105 (1): 15-23.
  7. Endotoxins have a strong affinity for the fat transport system in our digestive tract.
    Notes: Our body uses a fat transport system to absorb saturated fats (which our body loves to absorb) from foods of animal origin, while also absorbing endotoxins.
    Source: The capacity of foodstuffs to induce innate immune activation of human monocytes in vitro is dependent on food content of stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jan; 105 (1): 15-23.
  8. Eating grass-eating wild animals also causes inflammation in our body.
    Notes: Inflammation was milder than with domestic animals. The reason is probably the lower percentage of fat in wild animals.
    Source: Differences in postprandial inflammatory responses to a ‘modern’ v. traditional meat meal: a preliminary study. Br J Nutr. 2010 Sep; 104 (5): 724-8.
  9. Cholesterol has been shown to nourish and promote cancer growth.
    Notes: Cholesterol is present only in foods of animal origin.
    Source: Cholesterol and breast cancer development. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2012 12 (6): 677–682.
  10. Eating at least half an egg a day has been shown to double the chance of developing cancer of the oral cavity, throat, esophagus, prostate and bladder, and triple the chance of developing cancer of the gut and breast.
    Notes: A possible cause is dioxins, which are present mainly in food of animal origin.
    Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20104980
  11. Obesogen (a molecule that tells cells to turn into fat cells) organotin has been found in large quantities in fish.
    Source: Environmental obesogens: Organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology, 147 (6 – Suppl): – 50, 2006.
  12. Meat has little or no antioxidants. Most species contain less than iceberg lettuce.
    Notes: One type of food of animal origin had extremely high levels of antioxidants: human milk.
    Source: The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutr J. 2010 Jan 22; 9: 3.
  13. Researchers from Harvard in research lasting more than 22 oz. 30 years, in which 37,698 men or 83,644 women found that eating red meat increased overall mortality and cancer mortality.
    Notes: The studies considered age, body weight, alcohol consumption, physical activity, smoking, family history, caloric intake, and intake of whole plant foods. Nuts have also been found to have a protective effect as an alternative source of protein.
    Source: Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 2012; 0 (2012): 201122871-9.
  14. Nitrites from processed meat form nitrosamines (carcinogens that are also present in cigarette smoke) and are associated with the two most common cancers in children, brain tumors and leukemia.
    Source: A meta-analysis of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Neuroepidemiology. 2004 Jan-Apr; 23 (1-2): 78-84.
    Source: Nitrites, nitrosamines, and cancer. Lancet. 1968 May 18; 1 (7551): 1071-2.
  15. The level of uric acid in the body is increased only by purines (present in meat) and fructose.
    Notes: Uric acid causes gout, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease.
    Source: The role of uric acid as an endogenous danger signal in immunity and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011 Apr; 13 (2): 160-6.
  16. Eating meat just a few times a month greatly increases the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
    Notes: When an abdominal aortic aneurysm begins to rupture, the patient has less than a 15% chance of survival.
    Source: Analysis of risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a cohort of more than 3 million individuals. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep; 52 (3): 539-48.
  17. Our livers can detoxify only about 50% of the heterocyclic amines (carcinogens) produced by heat treatment of chicken meat. Previously, scientists thought that, like other animals, we could detoxify 99% of this dangerous molecule.
    Notes: 99% of heterocyclic amines can be detoxified by laboratory animals – hence the previously erroneous data extrapolated to humans.
    Source: Biomonitoring of urinary metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (phip) following human consumption of cooked chicken. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46 (9): 3200-3205, 2008.
  18. Processed meat is strongly associated with the development of cancers of the stomach, intestines, rectum, pancreas, lungs, prostate, testicles, kidneys and bladder.
    Source: Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Salt, processed meat and the risk of cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011 Mar; 20 (2): 132-9.
  19. In women diagnosed with breast cancer, an increase in saturated fat intake increased breast cancer mortality by 41%.
    Notes: The five largest sources of saturated fat: cheese, pizza, pastries, ice cream and chicken.
    Source: Post-diagnosis dietary factors and survival after invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Jul; 128 (1): 229-36.
    Source: National Cancer Institute. 2010. Top Food Sources of Saturated Fat among US Population.
  20. Handling chicken meat increases the risk of dying from penile cancer, which is thought to be linked to exposure to carcinogenic viruses present in chicken meat.
    Source: Cancer mortality in poultry slaughtering / processing plant workers belonging to a union pension fund. Environ Res. 2010 Aug; 110 (6): 588-94.
  21. In addition to cancer, workers on chicken farms are more likely to have many other diseases (eg thyroid disease, schizophrenia, autoimmune neurological disorders, peritonitis and kidney disease).
    Source: Mortality in the Baltimore union poultry cohort: non-malignant diseases. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010 Jun; 83 (5): 543-52.
  22. Salted meat products increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
    Notes: COPD is a group of lung diseases (eg emphysema). In 2012, COPD was the third most common cause of death in the United States.
    Source: Consumption of cured meats and prospective risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 87 (4): 1002-8.
  23. An increased amount of meat in the diet increases the risk of developing cataracts.
    Source: Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May; 93 (5): 1128-35.
  24. PhIP (a type of carcinogenic heterocyclic amine in heat-treated meat) not only damages DNA but also activates estrogen receptors (almost as potent as estrogen itself) in breast cancer cells, thereby promoting their growth.
    Notes: PhIP is most commonly found in chicken, beef, and fish.
    Source: The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine is a potent estrogen: A mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis 2004 25 (12): 2509–2517
    Source: The cooked meat-derived mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine promotes invasive behavior of breast cancer cells. Toxicology 2011 279 (1 – 3): 139 – 145
  25. Eating meat, including fish, cheese or animal protein in general has been associated with an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
    Source: Animal protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: The E3N prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct; 105 (10): 2195-201.
  26. One of the largest studies in the world links meat consumption with increased mortality in general, cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality.
    Notes: The study involved 500,000 people over a 10-year period.
    Source: Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. March 23, 2009; 169 (6): 562–571.
  27. Eating large amounts of meat, dairy products and butter accelerates skin wrinkles.
    Notes: Plums, apples and tea (especially greens) are the most protective against wrinkles and peeling of the skin.
    Source: Skin wrinkling: can food make a difference? J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Feb; 20 (1): 71-80.
  28. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (usually present only in roasted meat) have also been found in cheese and eggs.
    Source: Formation and biochemistry of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meats. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Feb 5; 168 (3): 219-27. Epub 2006 Nov 16.
  29. Renal failure is associated with meat consumption.
    Notes: Eating meat causes the excretion of protein in the urine (microalbuminuria), which is a pathological phenomenon.
    Source: Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May; 5 (5): 836-43.
  30. Iron from meat travels through the digestive system unregulated.
    Notes: Iron is a prooxidant, meaning it causes oxidative stress and DNA damage. Too much iron in the body can cause bowel cancer, cardiovascular disease, infections and inflammation. The body does not have a mechanism to regulate the removal of excess iron from the body.
    Source: Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: current questions and controversies. World J Gastroenterol. Jul 14, 2008; 14 (26): 4101-10.
  31. Food of animal origin (including turkey meat) lowers tryptophan levels in the brain.
    Notes: Foods of animal origin with a lot of tryptophan increase the level of tryptophan in the blood, and consequently lower the level of tryptophan in the brain. Plant-rich foods rich in tryptophan are most effective in raising tryptophan levels in the brain. improving mood.
    Source: Protein-source tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep; 85 (9): 928-32.
  32. Meat does not contain fiber to support healthy bacteria in our gut. This means that our bacteria cannot produce propionate, whose functions are to regulate cholesterol and the formation of new fat cells.
    Source: Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite. 2011 Apr; 56 (2): 511-5.
  33. For benign prostatic hyperplasia or. Prostate enlargement is most responsible for refined grains, eggs and chicken.
    Source: Food groups and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2006 Jan; 67 (1): 73-9.
  34. The following dangerous substances have been found in foodstuffs of animal origin: arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and veterinary medicinal products.
    Source: Chemical safety of meat and meat products. Meat Sci. 2010 Sep; 86 (1): 38-48.
  35. A 30-year follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis showed that 95% of patients who stopped eating saturated fat did not progress to the disease.
    Notes: A 50-year follow-up of patients showed that 95% of patients who resumed animal fats recovered immediately. The study concluded that multiple sclerosis was most likely due to the consumption of saturated fats of animal origin.
    Source: Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1990 336 (8706): 37 – 39.
    Source: Review of MS patient survival on a Swank low saturated fat diet. Nutrition 2003 19 (2): 161 – 162.
  36. All types of meat (regardless of the method of preparation) increase the chances of developing uterine cancer.
    Notes: Chicken and fish increase the risk the most.
    Source: Animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in shanghai. No. J. Cancer, 95 (11): 15861592, 2006.
  37. Smoked meat can have a detrimental effect on fetal development and may increase the risk of cancer.
    Notes: Just a short stay near soot (containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is associated with lower birth weight and a smaller head of the newborn.
    Source: Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland. Nutrition. 2012 Apr; 28 (4): 372-7.
  38. A high-protein diet of animal origin is associated with a relapse of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and an increased risk of developing it.
    Source: Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis 2012 44 (3): 185 – 194
  39. Concomitant consumption of microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminum silicate), which are often used as additives in cakes and processed foods, and endotoxins causes a 6 times stronger inflammatory response of the intestinal wall than if endotoxins are ingested alone.
    Notes: Most people consume a trillion titanium dioxide particles a day. The researchers found these microparticles in all 18 diseased intestinal tissues studied (bowel cancer or inflammatory disease), while no microparticles were found in the healthy intestinal tissues studied. Titanium dioxide is used as a bleach. Among all types of food, donuts with white glaze / sprinkle contain the most titanium dioxide.
    Source: Immune potentiation of ultrafine dietary particles in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J. Autoimmune. 2000 14 (1): 99 – 105
  40. Meat consumption is associated with premature puberty in boys and girls.
    Notes: Premature puberty is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer in women and abdominal obesity, and cardiovascular disease in men.
    Source: Internal exposure to pollutants and sexual maturation in Flemish adolescents. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2011 21 (3): 224 – 233
  41. Eating food of animal origin is associated with chest pain.
    Notes: Chest pain is caused by the hormone prolactin. When vegans and vegetarians ate meat in a study conducted in South Africa (where they have lower prolactin levels and are less likely to suffer from chest pain compared to the West), their prolactin levels rose and became comparable to prolactin levels in women from west. Two separate studies showed a significant reduction in chest pain after subjects eliminated meat from their diet.
    Source: Diet, lifestyle, and menstrual activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Jun; 33 (6): 1192-8.
    Source: Diet and prolactin release. Lancet. 1976 Oct 9; 2 (7989): 806-7.
    Source: Serum prolactin and oestradiol levels in women with cyclic mastalgia. Horm Metab Res. 1981 Dec; 13 (12): 700-2.
  42. The amino acid L-carnitine, which is present in large quantities in red meat and energy drinks, causes cardiovascular disease.
    Notes: While our body only produces L-carnitine, the problem arises when our gut bacteria come in contact with L-carnitine from food as they convert it into a toxic substance called trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). As a result, the level of TMAO in the blood increases sharply after ingestion of L-carnitine. TMAO is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
    Source: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. Apr 7, 2013
  43. Eating and handling chicken meat is associated with bladder infections.
    Notes: When handling frozen chicken meat, strains of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections appear in the rectum of the person who handled the meat. The appearance of bacteria in the rectum is also observed in the case when chicken meat is well heat-treated before consumption, because the bacteria enter the body before heat treatment. These bacterial strains are usually resistant to antibiotics.
    Source: Chicken as a reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in humans, Canada. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2012 18 (3): 415 – 421
  44. Immediate thorough cleaning with disinfectant after each preparation of chicken meat proved to be the only method to significantly reduce the number of pathogens from chicken meat in the kitchen. Despite such cleaning, pathogenic bacteria were still detected in some kitchen utensils.
    Notes: The utensils were washed with disinfectant, a dishcloth was soaked in disinfectant, and the surfaces were sprayed with disinfectant, waited 5 minutes and wiped, and then samples were taken. Despite such cleaning, pathogens were found on utensils, surfaces and dishcloths.
    Source: The effectiveness of hygiene procedures for prevention of cross-contamination from chicken carcases in the domestic kitchen. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1999 29 (5): 354 – 358
  45. A 5% increase in calorie intake from saturated fats (at the expense of lower carbohydrate intake) can result in a 38% decrease in sperm count.
    Source: Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum. Reprod. 2012 27 (5): 1466 – 1474
  46. Xenoestrogens (synthetic chemicals with estrogenic effects) are mostly found in fish.
    Source: Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec; 78 (6): 1187-94.
  47. People who eat fish meat have lower sperm counts compared to vegans.
    Source: Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec; 78 (6): 1187-94.
  48. One egg contains almost 2/3 of the maximum recommended daily intake of cholesterol for healthy people.
    Source: American Heart Association website (AHA).
  49. People who handle meat have a much higher mortality rate from cancer.
    Notes: Handling of the finished product is the most dangerous.
    Source: Cancer mortality in workers employed in cattle, pigs, and sheep slaughtering and processing plants. Environ Int 2011 37 (5): 950 – 959.
  50. Growing up on an animal farm increases the likelihood of developing blood cancer (living on a chicken farm has the worst impact).
    Notes: Growing up on farms that are only engaged in agriculture does not increase the likelihood of developing blood cancer.
    Source: Farming, growing up on a farm, and haematological cancer mortality. Occup Environ Med 2012 69 (2): 126 – 132.
  51. Eating meat can cause cellular cannibalism (autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy), leading to an autoimmune response in the body (rheumatoid arthritis).
    Notes: Due to the consumption of organisms from one’s own (animal) kingdom, the human immune system begins to recognize its own meat as foreign. Autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy has never been associated with the consumption of plant-based foods.
    Source: Meat-induced joint attacks, or meat attacks the joint: rheumatism versus allergy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Feb; 25 (1): 90-1.
    Source: Auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy and a novel IgG biomarker in workers exposed to aerosolized porcine brain. J. Peripher. Nerve. Syst. 2011 16 (Suppl 1): 34 – 37
  52. The amino acid methionine allows many cancers and tumors to survive and grow. Methionine is found practically only in foods of animal origin (mostly in eggs, fish and chicken).
    Source: The effect of methionine replacement by homocystine on survival of malignant and normal adult mammalian cells in culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1974 71 (4): 1133–1136.
  53. Meat is acidic, which leads to a higher risk of kidney stones and lower uric acid clearance.
    Source: Diet-induced metabolic acidosis. Clin Nutr 2011 30 (4): 416 – 421.
  54. Choline, which is present in high concentrations in eggs, can cause trimethylamine (the smell of rotten fish) to be excreted in exhaled air, urine, sweat and the vagina.
    Source: Smelling like dead fish: A case of trimethylaminuria in an adolescent. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006 45 (9): 864 – 866.
  55. Choline is converted to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been linked to cardiovascular disease and cancer.
    Source: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. Apr 7, 2013
  56. The most common infection of the brain with parasites in humans is infection of the brain with swine tapeworm.
    Source: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2011 11 (6): 529 – 535.
  57. Phosphorus preservatives are added to meat, which can damage blood vessels, accelerate the aging process and cause osteoporosis.
    Notes: Increased phosphorus levels are associated with significantly shorter lifespans.
    Source: Phosphate additives in food – a health risk. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012 109 (4): 49 – 55.
    Source: The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores. J Ren Nutr. 2013 23 (4): 265-270.
  58. Phosphorus preservatives added to chicken meat significantly increase the risk of infection with bacteria of the genus Campylobacter.
    Source: Effects of polyphosphate additives on Campylobacter survival in processed chicken exudates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2010 76 (8): 2419 – 2424
  59. In the samples of chicken croquettes from the two major food chains studied, chicken meat was not the main ingredient of the product, as fat, epithelium, bone, nerve tissue (brain and spinal cord) and connective tissue were present in large quantities in the croquettes.
    Source: The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads chicken little. Am J Med. 2013 126 (11): 1018-1019.
  60. Exposure to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to fish consumption during pregnancy causes brain damage to the fetus.
    Source: Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 2011 32 (6): 975 – 980.
  61. Mercury from fish outweighs the benefits of omega 3 fatty acids in brain development (it has a negative effect on IQ).
    Source: Fish consumption during child bearing age: a quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 54: 30-34.
  62. Due to the tendency of mercury to accumulate in the body, women planning to become pregnant should avoid mercury-containing foods for one year before becoming pregnant.
    Notes: The half-life of mercury is 2 months. This means that 2 months after ingestion, half of the amount of mercury consumed is in the body.
    Source: Fish consumption during child bearing age: A quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013 54 (NA): 30 – 34.
  63. Pregnant women who eat fish once a week take in more mercury than if they had received six mercury vaccines.
    Source: Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2011 412 (17 – 18): 1563 – 1566.
  64. Some chemicals (dioxins, PCBs and DDEs) present in fish have a half-life of up to 10 years.
    Notes: A half-life of 10 years means that after 10 years, only half of the amount of chemical ingested is eliminated from your body. So at about 1% of your current level you may get to the end of your life.
    Source: Elimination of half-lives of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in children. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008 42 (18): 6991 – 6996.
  65. Cow’s milk contains estrogen and other natural hormones that promote the transformation of pre-cancerous cells into invasive cancer cells and promote the progression of cancer cells.
    Notes: Organically produced milk was tested in the study.
    Source: Milk stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. Nutr Cancer. 2011 63 (8): 1361 – 1366.
  66. Just as cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
    Notes: This is the finding of a meta-analysis (review of all existing research on the link between milk consumption and prostate cancer) of case studies and controls, ie research on what people with and without prostate cancer have eaten in the past. The same conclusions were reached in the meta-analysis of cohort research, ie research in which they monitored for several years what people ate and who got prostate cancer.
    Source: Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: Meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer. 2004 48 (1): 22 – 27.
    Source: Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: Evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007 16 (3): 467 – 476.
  67. The enzyme ‘meat glue’, transglutaminase, can have harmful effects on health and can cause allergic reactions.
    Notes: The enzyme acts as an auto-antigen and is harmful to people who have a gluten intolerance. Bacteria from other parts of the animal can also be found in meat glue (eg E. coli O157: H7).
    Source: Transglutaminase, gluten and celiac disease: Food for thought. Nat. Med. 1997 3 (7): 725–726.
    Source: Escherichia coli O157: H7 risk assessment for production and cooking of restructured beef steaks. Report of progress (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service); 873 2010.
  68. In 70% of samples of purchased chicken breasts, arsenic was measured in much larger quantities than allowed by the FDA.
    Notes: Perennial arsenic intake has been associated with skin changes, skin cancer, and other cancers, e.g. bladder and lung, vascular and nervous diseases. According to the IARC, it is classified in group 1 (sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in humans).
    Source: Roxarsone, inorganic arsenic, and other arsenic species in chicken: A U.S.-Based market basket sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 121 (7): 818 – 824.
  69. The amino acid leucine has the greatest effect on increasing the level of mTORC1, which is supposed to accelerate the aging process. Meat products contain the most leucine.
    Notes: The level of mTORC1 is reduced by limiting calorie intake. However, with limited intake of proteins, especially the amino acid leucine, mTORC1 levels can be lowered just as effectively.
    Source: Amino acid sensing and regulation of mTORC1. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012 23 (6): 621 – 625.
    Source: Nutrient control of TORC1, a cell-cycle regulator. Trends Cell Biol. 2009 19 (6): 260 – 267.
  • The links provided in the sources leading to the research summaries do not necessarily contain all the conclusions reached in the research. Source: 100 Scientific Reasons to NOT Eat Meat (accessed: 3 January 2015)

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